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【妮菲】不靠谱不负责历史考据——关于Nefertari

感谢美丽睿智优雅的七七的帮助!翻译和校正了很多部分!如果没有七七是绝对完成不了的!感谢! @柠檬茶环游月球🍸 

欢迎同好交流!只是翻译了维基百科以及翻阅了一些文献,如果有相关资料欢迎交流!

不负责任,只是交流用,不撕逼,有错误欢迎纠正

有错误欢迎纠正

有错误欢迎纠正

有错误欢迎纠正

2018.08.02第一次订正

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简略翻译了一下奈菲塔丽的维基百科,英文学得很烂,所以可能会有很多错误欢迎小天使指正交流,欢迎交流指出我的错误,谢谢!

维基分为了Titles,Family,Biography,Monuments等部分,这里着重翻译了Titles,Family,Biography,这三个部分,人名地名均未翻译,不太确定的地方用英文进行了标注,欢迎指正交流

以下内容全部来自维基百科,只用作交流

本人不享有以下内容的所有权

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Nefertari, also known as NefertariMeritmut, was an Egyptian queen and the first of the Great Royal Wives (orprincipal wives) of Ramesses the Great.Nefertari means 'beautifulcompanion' and Meritmut means 'Beloved of [the goddess] Mut'. She is one of thebest known Egyptian queens, next to Cleopatra, Nefertiti, and Hatshepsut. Shewas highly educated and able to both read and write hieroglyphs, a very rareskill at the time. She used these skills in her diplomatic work, correspondingwith other prominent royals of the time. Her lavishly decorated tomb, QV66, isone of the largest and most spectacular in the Valley of the Queens. Ramessesalso constructed a temple for her at Abu Simbel next to his colossal monumentthere.

 

Nefertari,同样也是Nefertari Meritmut,是一位埃及王后,也是Ramesses the Great的第一任大王妃[the Great Royal Wives](或最重要的妻子)。Nefertari意为“美丽的伙伴[beautifulcompanion]”,Meritmut意为“女神[Mut]的宠儿【1】”。她是埃及最为知名的王后之一,仅次于克丽奥佩脱拉(Cleopatra),纳芙蒂蒂(Nefertiti),哈特谢普苏特(Hatshepsut)。她接受了高等教育,并且能够阅读和书写象形文字,这在当时这是一种非常少见的技能。她把这种能力运用在外交事业中,同当时著名的皇室通信联络。她奢华装饰的QV66号陵墓是王后谷中最大也是最壮观的陵墓之一。Ramesses还在阿布辛拜尔神庙(AbuSimbel)一座他的巨大的纪念碑旁为Nefertari建造了一座庙宇。

 

【1】Mut: Amun的妻子

Titles

Nefertari held many different titles,including: Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt), Lady ofGrace (nbt-im3t), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrtmeryt.f), Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy), Lady of all Lands (hnwt-t3w-nbw),Wife of the Strong Bull (hmt-k3-nxt), god's Wife (hmt-ntr), Mistress of Upperand Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w-mhw). Ramesses II also named her 'The one for whomthe sun shines'.

 

Nefertari有许多不同的称号,包括Greatof Praises [wrt-hzwt](最好的表扬),Sweetof Love [bnrt-mrwt](爱的甜蜜),Ladyof Grace [nbt-im3t](优雅的夫人),GreatKing’s Wife [hmt-niswt-wrt](大王的妻子),hisbeloved [hnwt-t3w-nbw] (他深爱的),Ladyof The Two Lands [nbt-t3wy](两块土地的女主人),Wifeof the Strong Bull [hmt-k3-nxt](强壮公牛的母亲),god'sWife [hmt-ntr](神的妻子),Mistressof Upper and Lower Egypt [hnwt-Shm’w-mhw](上下埃及的女主人),RamessesII同样称她为“因为有了她,太阳才放出光芒。”

 

这段翻译好尬,大概译了个意思

 

Family

Although Nefertari's family backgroundis unknown, the discovery in her tomb of a knob inscribed with the cartouche ofPharaoh Ay has led people to speculate she was related to him. The time betweenthe reign of Ay and Ramesses II means that Nefertari could not be a daughter ofAy and if any relation exists at all, she would be a great-granddaughter. Thereis no conclusive evidence linking Nefertari to the royal family of the 18thdynasty, however. Nefertari married Ramesses II before he ascended the throne.Nefertari had at least four sons and two daughters. Amun-her-khepeshef, theeldest was Crown Prince and Commander of the Troops, and Pareherwenemef wouldlater serve in Ramesses II’s army. Prince Meryatum was elevated to the positionof High Priest of Re in Heliopolis. Inscriptions mention he was a son ofNefertari. Prince Meryre is a fourth son mentioned on the façade of the smalltemple at Abu Simbel and is thought to be another son of Nefertari. Meritamenand Henuttawy are two royal daughters depicted on the façade of the smalltemple at Abu Simbel and are thought to be daughters of Nefertari.

 

Princesses named Bak(et)mut, Nefertari,and Nebettawy are sometimes suggested as further daughters of Nefertari basedon their presence in Abu Simbel, but there is no concrete evidence for thissupposed family relation.

 

尽管Nefertari的家庭背景并不为人所知,但在她墓穴中发现一个刻有法老Ay的漩涡花饰(cartouche)的把手,让人们推测也许她同Ay有关,这段在Ay与RamessesII之间的时间意味着Nefertari不可能是Ay的女儿,她可能是曾孙女,但这里没有明确证据将Nefertari同18世纪王室联系起来。Nefertari在RamessesII登基前便嫁给了他。Nefertari至少有四个儿子和两个女儿。Amun-her-khepeshef是长子,同时也是一支军队的指挥官。并且Pareherwenemef之后也在RamessesII的军队服役。PrinceMeryatum被任命为Heliopolis的大祭司,碑文提到他是Nefertari的儿子。Meryre王子是第四个儿子,在阿布辛拜尔神庙的小庙宇的正面被提到,并且被认为是Nefertari的另一个儿子。Meritamen和Henuttawy是两位皇室女儿,她们被描绘在小庙宇的正面,被认为是Nefertari的女儿。

Bak(et)mut,,Nefertari和Nebettawy公主有时被认为是Nefertari之后的女儿,因为他们在阿布辛拜尔神庙出场,但这里没有确切的证据可以证明这段家庭关系。

 

Biography

Nefertari first appears as the wife ofRamesses II in official scenes during the first year of Ramesses II. In thetomb of Nebwenenef, Nefertari is depicted behind her husband as he elevatesNebwenenef to the position of High Priests of Amun during a visit to Abydos.Nefertari also appears in a scene next to a year 1 stela. She is depictedshaking two sistra before Taweret, Thoth, and Nut.

 

Nefertari首次作为RamessesII的妻子出现在官方场景是在RamessesII统治的第一年,在Nebwenenef的墓中,Nefertari被描绘在丈夫的身后,当他在访问Abydos时期将Nebwenenef提升为Amun的大祭司。Nefertari同样出现在旁边记载了一年的石碑的一个场景(ascene next to a year 1 stela这里我猜测想要表达的意思是记载了一年中事件的石碑,或一年后的场景的石碑)。她被描绘了在塔沃里特女神(Taweret)【2】,托特神(Thoth)【3】和努特女神(Nut)【4】之间摇晃两个叉铃(sistra)【5】。

 

【2】塔沃里特女神(Taweret):孕妇的保护神,能保佑孕妇及新生儿。

【3】托特神(Thoth):智慧和学习之神。

【4】努特神(Nut):女天神,是众星辰之母,苍穹的化身,同时也是九柱神之一。

【5】叉铃(sistra):(古埃及祭祀女神伊希斯用的)叉铃

 

Nefertari is an important presence inthe scenes from Luxor and Karnak. In a scene from Luxor, Nefertari appearsleading the royal children. Another scene shows Nefertari at the Festival ofthe Mast of Amun-Min-Kamephis. The king and the queen are said to worship inthe new temple and are shown overseeing the Erection of the Mast before Amen-Reattended by standard bearers. Nefertari’s speech during this ceremony isrecorded:

"Yourbeloved son, the Lord of Both Lands, Usermaatre Setepenre, has come to see youin your beautiful manifestation. He has erected for you the mast of the(pavilion)-framework. May you grant him eternity as King, and victory overthose rebellious (against) His Majesty, L.P.H."’’


 

Nefertari在卢克索(Luxor)和卡纳克(Karnak)是重要人物。在一个关于卢克索的场景中,Nefertari带着皇室孩子出现。另一个场景展示了Nefertari在Amun-Min-Kamephis的桅杆节上。国王和王后在新寺庙中敬拜,并且在Amen-Re成为旗手担当之前监督了桅杆的架设。Nefertari在此仪式上的讲话记录如下:

“你心爱之子,上下埃及之王,Usermaatre Setepenre,来到你美丽的显现中来看你。他已经为你竖立了(亭子)框架的桅杆。愿你赐予他作为国王的永恒,并战胜那些陛下的反叛(反对)者,LPH【暂时不了解如何翻译】''

Nefertari appears as Ramesses II’sconsort on many statues in both Luxor and Karnak. In Western Thebes, Nefertariis mentioned on a statuary group from Deir el-BAhari, a stela and blocks fromDeir el-Medina.

 

Nefertari作为RamessesII的配偶出现在卢克索和卡纳克的许多雕像上。在底比斯西部,Nefertari出现在来自哈齐普苏特陵庙(Deirel-BAhari)的一个雕像群中,在一个来自戴尔美迪纳(Deirel-Medina)的石碑上。

The greatest honor was bestowed onNefertari however in Abu Simbel. Nefertari is depicted in statue form at thegreat temple, but the small temple is dedicated to Nefertari and the goddessHathor. The building project was started earlier in the reign of Ramesses II,and seems to have been inaugurated by ca year 25 of his reign (but notcompleted until ten years later).

 

Nefertari最大的荣誉是在阿布辛拜尔神庙得到授予。Nefertari被描绘在大神庙的雕像上,但是小神庙是献给Nefertari和哈托尔女神(Hathor)【6】的。这项工程建筑在RamessesII统治早起便已经开始了,似乎在他统治的第25年的时间(但直到十年后才完成)。

【6】哈托尔女神(Hathor):爱与美的女神,以及舞蹈、音乐和香水女神,用时也是埃及最古老的女神之一。她经常幻化成母牛,是荷鲁斯的妻子。

Nefertari’s prominence at court isfurther supported by cuneiform tablets from the Hittite city of Hattusas (todayBoghazkoy, Turkey), containing Nefertari's correspondence with the kingHattusili III and his wife Puduhepa. She is mentioned in the letters asNaptera. Nefertari is known to have sent gifts to Puduhepa:

The great Queen Naptera of the land ofEgypt speaks thus: Speak to my sister Puduhepa, the Great Queen of the Hattiland. I, your sister, (also) be well!! May your country be well. Now, I havelearned that you, my sister, have written to me asking after my health. ... Youhave written to me because of the good friendship and brotherly relationshipbetween your brother, the king of Egypt, The Great and the Storm god will bringabout peace, and he will make the brotherly relationship between the Egptianking, the Great King, and his brother, the Hatti King, the Great King, last forever... See, I have sent you a gift, in order to greet you, my sister... for yourneck (a necklace) of pure gold, composed of 12 bands and weighing 88 shekels,coloured linen maklalu-material, for one royal dress for the king... A total of12 linen garments.

Nefertari在王室的突出地位得到了来自赫梯(Hittite)的哈图莎(Hattusas,今日土耳其的波加科斯)的楔形文字木简的佐证,包含了Nefertari与国王HattusiliIII以及他的妻子Puduhepa的通信。她在信中被称为Naptera。众所周知Nefertari曾经送给Puduhepa礼物:

埃及土地的伟大的女王Naptera:与我的妹妹Puduhepa,Hatti土地的大女王通话。我,你的妹妹,(也)很好! 愿你的国家好。 现在,我听说你,我的姐姐,曾经写信询问我的健康状况。 ......你写信给我是因为埃及王,大帝和他的兄弟之间的良好友谊和兄弟般的关系将带来和平,他将在埃及王,大帝之间建立兄弟关系。国王和他的兄弟,哈提国王,伟大的国王,永远持续......你看,我送你一件礼物,为了迎接你,我的妹妹......这是为你打造的纯金项链(一条项链),由12条带子和88个舍客勒组成,是彩色亚麻maklalu材料,作为国王的一件皇家礼服...一共12件亚麻服装。

Nefertari is shown at the inauguralfestivities at Abu Simbel in year 24. Her daughter Meritamen is depicted takingpart in place of her mother in some of the scenes. Nefertari may well have beenin failing health at this point. After her death she was buried in tomb QV66 inthe Valley of the Queens.

 

Nefertari在24年初在阿布辛拜尔神庙举行的庆祝活动中亮相。她的女儿Meritamen在一些场景被描绘为代替母亲出席活动。在这一时间点Nefertari可能健康状态不佳。她死后被埋葬在王后谷的QV66墓中。


















以下是个人瞎比比时间,不引战,拉二奈菲向,不想看请忽略

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维基上面还有一张图片明确提出Nefertari大约是在公元前1255年,也就是RamessesII执政的第二十五年去世的,这里没有做出搬运,而Nefertari与RamessesII的长子(Amun-her-khepeshef)也是在同一时期去世,次子(Pareherwenemef)有可能比兄长过世更早,兄弟二人都曾参加对拉美西斯二世至关重要的卡迭石战役,并且获得荣誉,在四个儿子中,三子(Meryre)没有明确记录,四子则去了下埃及重要的城市赫利奥波利斯(Heliopolis)担任祭司,是重要的宗教中心,除了名字意义不明的Pareherwenemef与Meryre,其余两子的名字含义均与阿蒙神有关,Amun-her-khepeshef意为阿蒙神与他的右臂膀("AmunIs with His Right Arm"),Meryatum意为被阿蒙神所爱(“Belovedof Atum”),至于阿蒙神在古埃及第十九王朝的地位如何尊贵这点毋需赘述。

其次,长子在资料中考据是在塞提一世时期出生,而唯一活得相对来说长久一点的四子为什么没有继承王位,维基上是这样推测,Hepredeceased his elder brother Amunherkhepeshef and elder half-brother Ramesses,because after their death the next crown prince was the fourth son, Khaemwaset.(参见Pareherwenemef词条),可以得知王位的继承很有可能年龄也是考虑的一个方面。

在另外翻阅到的外文资料中猜测,Nefertari是出于为了巩固上埃及的统治而迎娶,Isetnofret则有可能同Nefertari的任务相似。除开政治联姻这点,Nefertari无疑很好履行了自己作为皇后的职责,在只有少数人能够娴熟掌握象形文字的古埃及,身为一名女性,Nefertari所付出的努力可想而知,如果单纯将她刻板定义为在后宫争宠的女子无疑太过偏颇。

如果有其余相关文献欢迎同好交流,顺带安利一本小说,《异教王后》,作者应该也是做了相关的资料查阅后写成的,很多方面有不同见解,读来消遣也是不错的选择。

不接受脑补的猜测撕逼,除非能够给出确切可靠的史实文献。

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